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Learn MS-DOS - Microsoft Disk Operating System

MICROSOFT DISK OPERATING SYSTEM  

MS-DOS stands for Microsoft Disk Operating System. It is popular operating system software designed by Microsoft corporation. Which is designed for the users of IBM and It's compatible computers.
Tim-Paterson
Ms-Dos, Inventor
Tim Paterson is an American computer programmer, he is known as original author of MS-DOS. This is widely used in 1980s, personal computers.
MS-DOS comprises three important files for booting computer.

  1. IO.SYS
  2. MSDOS.SYS
  3. COMMAND.COM
DOS is CUI (Command Line Interface) based operating system, where we have to transmit instruction through keyboard. There were large set of commands in MS-DOS. It does not support the feature of advanced OS features like multitasking and multiprocessing.

File: 

File is the collection of related information or set of information. All the created information in DOS are stored in file. There are two parts of file name in DOS, 1. Primary file name. 2. Extension file name.

Directory:

Directories are the main heading of the DOS cabinet. where all the files are stored or kept. It is the specially partitioned drive (space) of the memory.  Where we can maintain may directories on same disk. 
Directory
Example of Directories

Open DOS Prompt on Windows.

  • Windows+R=RUN.
  • Type CMD or COMMAND. 
  • Hit Enter or Ok.

DOS Commands.

Command is a set of instruction which are used to perform some specific task.  There are two types of DOS commands 1. Internal Command. 2. External Command.

Internal Commands.

Those are internal commands which can easily understand by an interpreter file COMMAND.COM. Internal commands executes faster because they are build in DOS.

  • DATE
  • TIME
  • DIR
  • CLS
  • DLE OR ERASE
  • EXIT
  • COPY CON 
  • COPY 
  • REN 
  • MD 
  • CD 
  • RD 
  • PROMPT 
  • VOL 
  • TYPE 
  • VER 
  • PATH
  • BREAK 
  • ECHO 
  • PAUSE 

External Commands.

Those are external commands which are stored on the disk as program file. External commands are executes slower because they have to read before execution.
  • CHKDS 
  • DISKCOPY 
  • FORMAT 
  • LABEL 
  • SYS 
  • TREE 
  • DELTREE 
  • MEM 
  • EDIT 
  • XCOPY 
  • ATTRIB 
  • PRINT 
  • MORE 
  • SCANDSIK 
  • DISKCOMP 

Internal Commands.

DATE: 

This command displays system date and lets user to modify it. 
Syntax: Date. 
C:\>date
The current date is: Sun 04/06/2014
Enter the new date: (mm-dd-yy)
[Enter new date on the basis of month-day-year pattern.]

TIME:

This command displays system time and lets user to modify it.
Syntax: Time.

C:\>time
The current time is:  6:56:24.25
Enter the new time:
[Enter new time to modify it on your system.]

CLS:

CLS stands for Clear Screen, This command is used to clear the screen.
Syntax: CLS.

C:\>cls

DIR:

This command is used to show the list of directories in different order.
Syntax: DIR. [With it's directory type or model]

dir: all files and directories at a time.
dir/p     : all files and directories page by page.
dir/w    : all files and directories in wide form.
dir/ad   : it displays all directories.
dir/a-d  : it displays files only.
dir/ar    : it displays all read only files.
dir/a-r   : it displays all read write files.
dir/ah    : it displays all hidden files.
dir/as     : it displays all system files.
dir/s       : displays all files and directories and sub-directories of the computer.
dir/on     : It displays files and directories in ascending order.
dir/od     : it displays files and directories with date of modification.
dir/os      : it displays all files and directories with size.

PROMPT:

This command is used to change the ms-dos command prompt. 
Syntax: Prompt (Prompt Option or Name).

c: prompt satya:\

satya:\

Options: 
$d : Current date.
$t  : Current time. 
$q : Equal sign.
$$ : Dollar sign.
$p : Current drive or path.
$v : Ms-dos version number.
$g : Greater than sign.
$l : Less than sign.
$p$g : Original prompt. 

COPY CON:

This command is used to create text file on ms-dos. 
Syntax: Copy Con <file name>

C:\>copy con satya
[type text under file: Hello, i am satya prakash joshi, founder of ansmachine, just enjoy with us.. thanks.]

Press F6 or CTRL+Z=for save the document and Hit enter.

TYPE: 

This command is used to display the contents of your previous text file. 
Syntax: Type [With text file name]. 

C:\>type satya
[It's shows what is the content under file satya.]

REN:

This command is used to change the name of existing file or rename the existing file by new name.
Syntax: Ren <Old FIle Name> <New File Name>

C:\>ren satya ansmachine [enter]

COPY:

This command allows user to copy one or more files from one location to another or at the same location by using different name.
Syntax: Copy <file name with location>
C:\>Copy ansmachine d:

DEL or Erase:

This command is used to delete or erase the existing files.
Syntax: Del or Erase <File name>

C:\>Del or Erase Kathmandu
C:\>Del or Erase satya
C:\>Del or Erase *.amx

MD (Make Directory):

This command is used to create a directory. 
Syntax: MD <Directory Name>
C:\>MD ANSMACHINE

CD (Change Directory):

This command is used to change the directory. 
Syntax: CD <Directory Name>
C:\>CD ANSMACHINE>

CD\

This command is used to close all the open directories.

CD..

This command is used to close all the open directories.

RD (Remove Directory):

This command is used to delete or remove the existing directory (empty only).
Syntax: RD <Directory Name>
C:\> RD ANSMACHINE

EXIT:

This command is used to exit from do into the windows mode. 
Syntax: Exit.
C:\> Exit

PATH: 

This command is used to establish the direct connection to executable program files, so that we can easily run any executable program files without loading them into the memory from any location.
Syntax: Path=...
C:\> Path =C:\MSAM
C:\> masm

HELP (/?):

THis sign i s used to get any type of help about ms-dos. 
Syntax: <command>/?
C:\>Dir/? [It displays help about dir command].

VERSION:

This command displays the ms-dos version currently used in.
Syntax: ver
C:\> Vol C:
C:\> Vol D:

External Commands:

MOVE: 

This command is used to move the files from one location to another location.
Syntax: Move <Source> <Destination>
C:\> Move MASM
C:\> Move C:\MyDocument\*.xml A:

XCOPY:

This command is used to copy files and directories from one location to another.
Syntax: XCOPY <Source File> <Destination>
C:\> XCOPY/s  C:\MASM A:\MASM

SYS:

This command is used to transfer system files from one drive to another.
Syntax: Sys < Source Drive> <Destination Drive>
C:\>Sys C: A:
A:\>Sys A: C:

DOSKEY:

This command record all the dos command into the memory that you have previously used in dos-prompt. So you can easily re-use them by pressing up-arrow, down-arrow etc.
Syntax: Doskey
C:\>Doskey

FORMAT:

This command is used to formatting the diskette. Erase all data from memory.
Syntax: Format <Drive Name/ Option>
C:\>Format /q/s A:

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